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食品安全法修改:快递食品需防止污染 转基因食品需标识

根据全国人大法律委员会的报告,此次修改涉及章节内容较多,改动部分较大,涉及了食品运输环节管理问题、与农产品质量安全法交叉时的适用问题、行业协会和媒体的监督问题、淘汰高毒剧毒农药问题等业内长期关注的问题,而对转基因食品的标识、保健食品的备案等近年来开始备受公众关注的议题也有回应。

仓储物流企业对食品的贮存运输首次纳入规范

此前,食品的贮存运输一直被视为食品生产经营的“相关活动”,以涵盖而不单独规定的方式存在于法律中。但近年来网购方兴,占线上交易相当比例的食品交易面临的各种问题开始受到重视。6个月前,食品安全法修订草案首次提交审议时,有些常委会委员即提出,应该对那些并不专业生产经营食品但同样经手食品贮存运输的专业仓储、物流企业进行规范。

本次修改中增加了如下内容:非食品生产经营者从事食品贮存、运输和装卸的,贮存、运输和装卸食品的容器、工具和设备应当安全、无害,保持清洁,防止食品污染,并符合保证食品安全所需的温度等特殊要求,不得将食品与有毒、有害物品一同运输。

媒体可加大对食品安全监督力度 但承担相应责任

另一重大修改则涉及公共舆论领域对食品安全事件的监督。在越来越多的食品安全事件是以“个别举报—媒体跟进—主管部门做出反应”的模式爆发的现实情况下,本次修法对这一模式做出了鼓励,具体为规定保护举报人的权益,需对其相关信息进行保密,并删去原草案中“发布食品安全信息应当事先向食品药品监督管理部门核实情况”的规定,从而允许媒体更快地对举报做出反应。

但另一方面,草案也规定,媒体编造、散布虚假食品安全信息的,由有关主管部门依法给予处罚,并对直接负责的主管人员和直接责任人员给予处分。

转基因食品应当按规定标识 否则承担法律责任

对于近年来炙手可热的转基因食品论战,这次修订草案则以相当低调的方式作出了回应。

针对不少人呼吁转基因食品应当明确标识,草案援引《农业转基因生物安全管理条例》中已有的农业转基因生物标识制度,要求“生产经营转基因食品应当按照规定进行标识”。但具体以什么方式标识、食品标识和农业转基因生物标识有何区别、如何定义“按规定”等问题,草案均未回答。

另在法律责任一章,草案规定,“转基因食品未按规定标识”有可能承担从没收违法所得、罚款到停产停业、吊销许可证等各个档次的处罚,但其中“标签存在瑕疵但不影响食品安全”的,由县级以上食药监管部门责令改正即可,拒不改正的,处二千元以下罚款。

法律责任进一步强化:升高罚款下限

此次草案对法律责任章节做出了较大幅度修改,例如,加入了“明知他人违法生产经营食品仍提供场所”者的连带责任;对用非食品原料生产食品这类严重违法行为,首次加入人身处罚,允许拘留责任人;上海福喜事件这类用过期原料生产食品的行为,过去在法律责任中处于盲区,此次则被纳入规定;明确餐饮具集中消毒服务单位的主管部门等等。

另一方面,罚款幅度也有调整。一些原先规定范围在“二千元至五万元”之间的处罚,被认为裁量幅度过大,下限上升至一万元,与此相似,“五千元至二万元”之间的罚款也被调整为“二万元至五万元”。某些已规定惩罚原则且“上不封顶”的惩罚性赔偿,增加规定:增加赔偿金额不足一千元的,为一千元。

至此,在修订草案一审稿已大大加重现行法中处罚条款,且首次设置“上不封顶”式处罚的基础上,二审稿收紧罚款下限,使得违法成本再次提高。

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