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硫磺熏蒸中药材由来已久 二氧化硫残留量标准有依据
发布时间: 2014-01-24 - 标签: , - 浏览 2,696 次

春节临近,很多人喜欢买点人参、灵芝、冬虫夏草等珍贵的中草药馈赠亲友,然而染色、增重、硫磺熏蒸,是中药材市场三大“潜规则”,其中硫磺熏蒸可能会导致中药里有二氧化硫残留,过量的二氧化硫残留对人体危害较大,这不由得使人们担心用中药补身不成反影响健康。

  现在《中华人民共和国药典》2010年版第二增补本已经开始施行,其中首次规定了中药材及饮片二氧化硫残留限量标准,这无疑让人们松了一口气。为何中药材会需要硫磺熏蒸?过度熏蒸会给中药材的品质和人体造成什么影响?就此,记者采访了北京中医药大学中药学院教授刘春生。

  用硫磺熏蒸中药材由来已久

  增白、防霉、防蛀有利药材贮存

  用硫磺熏蒸中药材作为一项比较传统的工艺,在我国由来已久。刘春生告诉科技日报记者,用硫磺对药材进行熏蒸能起到两个方面的作用,不仅可以使药物增白,还能达到防霉、杀虫的效果。因为硫在熏蒸过程中燃烧产生二氧化硫气体,二氧化硫本身是一种强还原剂,与药材中的水分发生化学反应后可以生成酸,起到防霉、防虫蛀的作用,同时促进了药材的干燥,有利于药材的贮存。

  到现在为止,利用硫磺熏蒸的方法在一些药材中还在使用。在这个过程中,可能会增加药材中硫的含量,这也是硫进入药材的一个主要途径。

  记者在国家食品药品监督管理总局网站上看到这样的表述:中药材及饮片不同于食品,其摄入量相对较少,且经硫磺熏蒸后的中药材及中药饮片中残留的挥发性二氧化硫,经过药材储存等环节,残留量会进一步降低。由于少量残留的二氧化硫进入体内后会生成亚硫酸盐,并由组织细胞中的亚硫酸氧化酶将其氧化为硫酸盐,通过正常解毒后最终由尿液排出体外,再加上机体自身存在有内源性的亚硫酸盐,能耐受一定水平的亚硫酸盐。因此,少量的二氧化硫进入机体不致造成伤害。

  药材流通领域滥用硫磺熏蒸

  不法商贩给中药“化妆”损健康

  “但是部分不当熏硫方式常发生在药材流通领域。”刘春生直言,一些不法商人利用熏硫处理给劣质中药材“化妆”,实现增色、美白的效果,从而达到以次充好的目的,将劣质药材顺利销售出去,这种过度使用硫磺熏蒸的中药材,不仅含有过量的二氧化硫,可能影响药材的质量和疗效,更严重的是会对健康造成伤害。服用了这种二氧化硫残留量过高的中药材,会破坏人体的消化系统和呼吸系统,对肝脏、肾脏等器官也有潜在威胁,如长期服用还会引起慢性中毒。“药材中二氧化硫残留量过高对人体健康有损害,这已是公认的事实。”刘春生说。

  事实上,过度用硫磺熏蒸中药材的事件近年来已多次被曝光,2011年,甘肃陇西商家就被曝出用硫磺熏蒸当归、党参等中药材,引起社会对中药二氧化硫标准的争议。硫磺熏蒸在客观上虽然有一定合理性,但存在两个严重问题:一是滥用,即反复用硫磺熏蒸;二是加工欠规范,多为农户自发进行,往往出现使用工业硫磺的情况,产生重金属超标隐患。因此限制中药材中的二氧化硫残留量,已成为业内共识。

  既然硫磺熏蒸的传统方法被滥用,那么现有的科技手段能否取而代之?“在药材加工领域,有些药材比如山药等,目前还不能完全取消硫磺熏蒸加工。”刘春生说,相关研究表明,经过硫磺熏蒸的药材和没有经过硫磺熏蒸的药材其化学成分是有一定不同的,但是这种不同对药材临床疗效的影响还不清楚。“对多数药材的防腐、防虫、防霉贮存需要而言,可以采取冷库贮藏、气调储藏等措施。”

  二氧化硫残留量标准有依据

  新规考虑健康兼顾药品品质

  此前,有媒体报道称,一些中药材在炮制过程中需用硫磺对药材进行熏蒸,这一环节有可能会增加药材中硫的含量。对此,刘春生并不认同,并一再强调“硫磺熏蒸不是炮制工艺,是产地加工工艺”,目前被一些不法商人用在了药材流通领域,用于对药材进行增色、美白、掩盖异味。此次《药典》的修改,不仅是为了防止人体二氧化硫摄入过量,也是出于保证中药品质的考虑。不法商人利用硫磺对药材进行反复熏蒸,熏蒸时间的延长和次数的增多都会使药材中的一些有效成分发生变化,从而影响中药饮片的品质。

  新《药典》规定,除了矿物来源的中草药材,中药材及饮片中亚硫酸盐残留量不得超过150毫克/千克,山药、天冬、天麻等10种中药材及其饮片中亚硫酸盐残留量不得超过400毫克/千克。为何山药、天冬、天麻等10种中药材要区别对待?

  “山药、天冬、天麻等10种药材是传统采用硫磺熏蒸的中药材品种,目前尚无简便易行、经济有效的方法取而代之,因此这些品种的亚硫酸盐残留量需要特殊制定。”刘春生解释说,参照联合国粮农组织、世界卫生组织和中国食品药品检定研究院等单位的长期研究及监测数据,新《药典》制订了中药材及其饮片二氧化硫残留限量标准。

  联合国粮农组织和世界卫生组织联合食品添加剂专家委员会对二氧化硫类物质作为食品添加剂的危险性评估为:以二氧化硫为例,每日允许摄入量为0—0.7毫克/千克体重,即一个60千克体重的成人,每天二氧化硫的摄入量不得超过42毫克。刘春生告诉记者,在联合国粮农组织和世界卫生组织制定的“食品添加剂通用标准”中规定,草药及香料中亚硫酸盐残留量“以二氧化硫计不得超过150毫克/千克”,蘑菇、豆类、海藻类等干菜以及种子类产品中亚硫酸盐残留量“以二氧化硫计不得超过500毫克/千克”。

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