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我国食品软包装材料检测发展趋势
发布时间: 2014-05-05 - 标签: , - 浏览 2,205 次

徜徉在超市食品区,琳琅满目的包装不断诱惑着人们的购买欲,其中大家不难发现,在食品包装中,软包装以其质轻、美观、性优、价廉的独特优势,已成为食品包装的主流。

包装材料不仅要以精巧的设计吸引着消费者的眼球,其性能质量更关乎到食品在存储、运输、加工、销售过程中保持新鲜、防止变质、方便运输存储这些实际问题,如何才能切实有效又经济便捷地解决这些问题,对包装材料进行检测控制是十分必要的。食品包装质量检测控制在国外已有几十年的发展历史,我国虽起步较晚,但发展十分迅速,已引起越来越多的食品生产厂家、包装供应商乃至消费者的关注。目前食品包装检测控制主要体现在以下两个方面:

1、阻隔性测试。阻隔性通常是指包装材料对气体、液体等渗透物的阻隔作用。由于阻隔性能直接影响到食品的质量及保质期等关键问题,所以在众多包装测试项目中处于重要地位。以我们常见的食品包装为例,乳制品包装的氧气透过量对于牛奶的保质期至关重要,大量测试结果表明,对于鲜牛奶包装而言,包装物的透氧量在200-300之间,冷藏保质期在10天左右,透氧量在100-150之间,可达20天,如果透氧量控制在5以下,那么保质期就能达到1个月以上;对于熟肉制品来说,不但需要重视材料的透氧量,防止肉制品的氧化变质,而且还要注意材料的阻湿性能,预防产品水分大量散失而使颜色变深发暗。对油炸类食品如方便面、膨化食品等,包装材料的阻隔性能同样不容忽视,这类食品的包装主要是防止产品氧化酸败,因此要做到密闭、隔绝空气、避光、阻气等,常见的包装主要是真空镀铝膜,通过检测,这类包装材料的透氧量一般应在3以下,透湿在2以下;广泛用于饮料及啤酒包装的PET塑料瓶,对阻隔性也有着极其严格的要求;还有市场上比较常见的气调包装,不但要控制材料的氧气透过量,对二氧化碳的透过性也有一定要求。综上可以看出,包装阻隔性测试在包装品质控制方面的重要性正日益凸显,而且阻隔性测试与当前全球软包装行业追求产品高阻隔性能的热潮相吻合,其设计也代表了包装检测的前沿技术,目前用于阻隔性测试的检测设备主要有透气性测试仪、透湿性测试仪、透氧仪、气体渗透仪、容器/薄膜透氧仪等。

2、强度测试。强度是一个综合的指标,它是包装材料的抗拉、抗断强度及变形率,封口的热封强度,膜的复合强度的综合体现,相关标准中规定的物理指标也是强度要求的细化指标。用于这方面检测的常见仪器有适用于薄膜、纸张等产品精确厚度测量的测厚仪,测试整个包装物密封效果的密封试验仪,测试薄膜、复合膜、橡胶等材料拉伸、剥离、撕裂、热封强度等的电子拉力试验机,适用于薄膜、纸张等产品的耐撕裂度测试的撕裂度仪,测定材料热封温度、热封时间、热封压力等参数的热封仪,用于薄膜、薄片等材料表面滑动动静摩擦系数测定的摩擦试验仪,用于旋转瓶盖的打开或旋紧力测试的扭矩仪,以及冲击、粘性、抗压等测试仪器。

软包装新产品、新材料的层出不穷,使材料的物性评价愈显重要,包装检测控制技术及设备的不断推陈出新,对控制质量、指导加工、研究材料的性质性能提供了有力帮助;同时,包装质量控制的数字化,使得包材生产厂家有章可循,包材用户有据可依,食品包装质量控制不再是一句空话。

透气性对食品包装的影响及主要测控技术

众所周知,氧气对于食品的品质有着很大的影响,还有一些食品包装(如碳酸饮料、咖啡等)对CO2的透过量也有严格的要求,因此控制食品包装材料的透气性以及包装物内部的有机气体含量也就成了食品包装的主要任务之一。

一、气体透过对食品内容物质量的影响

1、使食品中的油脂发生氧化,这种氧化即使是在低温条件下也能进行。油脂氧化产生的过氧化物,不但使食品失去食用价值,而且会发生异臭,产生有毒物质。

2、食品中的大部分细菌由于氧的存在而繁殖生长,造成食品的腐败变质。

3、生鲜果蔬在贮运流通过程中如不采取必要保护措施,果蔬会因呼吸作用而吸收氧放出CO2和水,并消耗一部分营养,使得蔬菜、水果出现过熟、发软、风味变化等情况。

4、在常温下,氧化褐变的反应速度比加热褐变快得多。对于风味食品,如浓缩肉汤及易氧化褐变变色的食品,即使有少量的残留氧,也能引起褐变,使食品的风味丧失或变质。

5、碳酸饮料、啤酒、咖啡、果汁等产品除对氧气敏感外,CO2也对其品质有很大影响。

二、透气性测试主要方法介绍

为了防止上述情况的出现,对食品包装进行透气性测试,以确保包装材料气体阻隔性能是十分必要的。从测试原理上分,透气性测试方法可分为压差法和电量分析传感器法两类。

压差法测试原理:用待测薄膜将测试腔隔成两个独立的空间,向其中一侧(高压室)充入测试气体,在试样两侧形成一定的压差,高压室的气体透过薄膜渗透到低压室,通过测量低压室的压力或体积变化就可以得出气体的渗透率。GB/T1038-2000就是采用了压差法,相关国际标准,如:ASTM

D1434-1998,ISO15105-1,ISO2556:2001等也采用压差法。

电量分析传感器法测试原理:用待测薄膜将测试腔隔成两个独立的气流系统,一侧为流动的待测气体(可采用纯氧气或含氧气的混合气体,可设定气体的相对湿度),另一侧为流动的氮气。试样两侧的压差相等但氧分压不同,在浓度差的作用下,通过薄膜的氧气在氮气流的载运下送至电量分析传感器中,从而计算出材料的氧气透过率。

压差法和等压法的测试原理不同,测试条件不同,试验结果的单位也不相同(压差法的单位是cm3/m2·24h·0.1MPa,而等压法的单位是cm3/m2·d),所以由这两种测试方法得到的未经校正的原始数据,从理论上说不具备可比性。但通过使用标准膜标定等压法设备并将校正因子用于正式试验后,压差法和等压法的试验结果就可以比较了。

由于膜技术理论的支持,压差法在透气性测试中一直作为基础方法使用,科研检测机构多采用这种方法。它的突出优点是对于测试气体没有选择性,对不同的测试气体的通用性非常好。随着真空规检测技术的进步、以及真空技术在设备设计上的应用,大大提高了设备的检测精度以及测试数据的重复性。

传感器法是随着氧探测器技术的不断成熟而出现的,由于使用的传感器属消耗型元件,所以设备标定所得的校正因子并不是长期有效的,需要根据要求进行周期性设备标定,而且当传感器的损耗达到一定程度时必须更换。不同厂商的设备其传感器的使用寿命会有较大差别,Labthink

TOY-C1所采用的氧传感器在正常使用情况下预期能够使用12-30个月,算是使用时间较长的了。

三、结论

气体对包装材料的渗透可能会引起食品的变质、腐蚀,对于食品的保质期有很大的影响。国际上现有压差法和电量分析传感器法两种方法来检测气体透过性,我国的软包装测试行业在透气性测试领域有着迅速的发展。

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