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儿童牛奶需要食品添加剂吗?

河北指南针检测服务中心是石家庄质检服务行业的探索者和检测代理服务行业的领头人,检测实验室具有CMA资质认定,出具的报告均是国家级权威检测报告和省级权威检测报告。为消费者、社区、市民和社会各界提供质量监督检验服务,保障产品质量安全。

近日,部分媒体报道称“儿童牛奶含有多种食品添加剂,甚至高达10种以上,会增加儿童肾脏和肝脏负担,并建议儿童尽量少饮用儿童牛奶”,引起社会广泛关注。儿童牛奶里真的有这么多食品添加剂吗?这些食品添加剂对儿童身体健康有影响吗?国家食品药品监管总局特别邀请中国食品科学技术学会副理事长、中国工程院院士、北京工商大学副校长、教授孙宝国及中国农业大学食品科学与营养工程学院教授任发政对这些问题进行了解答。

食品安全国家标准对儿童食品没有明确规定,儿童牛奶可以按照普通食品生产与管理。

《〈食品营养强化剂标准〉(GB14880-2012)问答》中第二十九条对儿童的定义有明确解释,即已满36个月但不满15岁的个体。由于36个月龄前的婴幼儿的生理机能(尤其是消化机能)处于逐步完善阶段,因此其所食用的食品有严格的管理规定和相应的标准,如婴幼儿配方乳粉;国家标准对36个月龄后的儿童食品没有明确规定,可以按照普通食品生产与管理。

儿童牛奶可添加适量营养强化剂和必要的食品添加剂。

一般儿童牛奶配方中含奶量为95%左右,白砂糖3%—4%,其余所添加的成分应符合GB2760-2011《食品安全国家标准 食品添加剂使用标准》及GB14880-2012《食品安全国家标准 食品营养强化剂使用标准》的要求。儿童牛奶配方中常见的物质成分有:生牛乳、白砂糖、聚葡萄糖、低聚果糖等,属于普通食品原料;鱼油提取物等属于新资源食品原料;乳铁蛋白、维生素E等属于营养强化剂;单硬脂酸甘油酯、蔗糖脂肪酸酯、海藻酸钠、三聚磷酸钠、抗坏血酸钠、卡拉胶、食用香精等属于食品添加剂。

按照食品安全国家标准所使用的食品添加剂是安全的,食品添加剂有毒与食品中含有食品添加剂是两个不同的概念。

从毒理学角度来看,部分食品添加剂是具有毒性的,但是食品添加剂有毒与食品中含有食品添加剂根本不是一回事。比如:婴幼儿配方乳粉中也有氯化镁(卤水主要成分),氯化镁不但是食品凝固剂,还是食品营养强化剂;氢氧化钾是强碱,只要不超过一定的量,用在食品中就是安全的。因此,食品添加剂本身可能具有一定毒性,但离开“量”谈毒性是不科学的,只要按照标准规定的使用量和使用范围在食品生产经营中使用,对人体健康是无影响的。

专家建议:

考虑到儿童营养需求和口感特点,依据国家相关标准,乳品企业应充分考虑儿童的生理发育特点,严格管控食品质量与安全,开发生产儿童食品,建议标准制定部门加快制定相关标准。

食品企业在使用食品添加剂时,应严格遵守食品安全法律法规和相关标准,确保食品安全。

加大对食品添加剂的公众科普,尤其是针对媒体组织的科普。

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